Enhancing Interoperability Among Health Information Systems in Low- and Middle- Income Countries

14 Apr 2024


(1) Prabath Jayatissa, University of Colombo

(2) Roshan Hewapathirane, University of Colombo

Abstract & Introduction



Conclusion & References


The review article aims to provide an overview of the challenges and strategies for enhancing interoperability among health information systems in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Achieving interoperability in LMICs presents unique challenges due to various factors, such as limited resources, fragmented health information systems, and diverse health IT infrastructure. The methodology involves conducting a comprehensive literature review, synthesising findings, identifying challenges and strategies, analysing and interpreting results, and writing and finalising the article. The article highlights that the interoperability challenges include a lack of standardisation, fragmented systems, limited resources, and data privacy concerns. The article proposes strategies to enhance interoperability in LMICs, such as standardisation of data formats and protocols, consolidation of health information systems, investment in health IT infrastructure, and capacity building of health IT professionals in LMICs. The article aims to provide insights into the current state and potential strategies for enhancing interoperability among health information systems in LMICs, intending to improve healthcare delivery and outcomes in these


Interoperability, Health information systems, low and middle-income countries (LMICs), challenges, strategies, standardisation


Health information systems (HISs) are critical in supporting the delivery of quality healthcare services, improving patient outcomes, and informing evidence-based decision-making. HIS faces unique challenges in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) due to limited resources, infrastructure, and capacity. One key challenge is the lack of interoperability, which refers to the ability of different HISs to exchange and use health information effectively.

Interoperability is crucial for achieving seamless data exchange, coordination of care, and integration of health services. It enables healthcare providers to access and share patient information across different systems, facilitating timely and informed decision-making. However, achieving interoperability in LMICs is complex and poses several barriers, including technical, organisational, and financial challenges.

This review article aims to highlight the challenges and strategies for enhancing interoperability among HIS in LMICs. We will explore the current state of interoperability in LMICs, identify the challenges faced by these countries, and discuss the strategies that can be employed to overcome these challenges. We will also highlight the importance of standardization, consolidation, investment, and capacity building as key strategies for improving interoperability in LMICs. By addressing these challenges and implementing appropriate strategies, LMICs can unlock the full potential of HIS to improve healthcare outcomes and achieve better health for their populations.

This paper is available on arxiv under CC 4.0 license.