A Novel Method for Analysing Racial Bias: Ethics Statement and References

14 May 2024

This paper is available on arxiv under CC 4.0 license.


(1) Muhammed Yusuf Kocyigit, Boston University;

(2) Anietie Andy, University of Pennsylvania;

(3) Derry Wijaya, Boston University.

Ethics Statement

Language and context are not simple things especially considering we are working on a summarization of n-grams instead of sentences. Hence the results and analysis must be evaluated with this in mind. Also the identification of bias can sometimes inadvertently be affected by the researchers’ own biases, despite our best efforts to be rigorous in our methodology. A risk lies in potentially over-simplifying or misrepresenting complex socio-cultural dynamics. We have worked to minimize this risk through methodological transparency, iterative analyses, and peer review.

The study inherently involves discussing racially biased language, which could cause distress to some readers, particularly those from communities affected by such biases. Our presentation aims to be sensitive, focusing on systemic patterns rather than individuals or specific works.

Lastly, there is a potential risk of misuse of our findings. The purpose of our study is to raise awareness and prompt action towards eliminating bias, but we are aware that the same information could be used to support biased arguments or perpetuate harmful stereotypes even though the content of books are not a representation of reality but the representation of the perception of the authors which could be source of bias in some cases.

On the positive side, our research contributes to a better understanding of systemic racial biases in historical and cultural contexts. This deeper awareness can help us understand what we perceive as normal or what the next generation will perceive as normal putting a external reality check on the culture we inherit without knowing.

As a part of our ethical commitment, we will make our data and code public to invite critique, replication, and improvement. Our research is not an end but a beginning, providing a stepping stone for further inquiries into racial bias.


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